Dr. David Eckhoff

I am a Principal Scientist and the Director of the MoVES Lab at TUMCREATE, Singapore. My research focuses on future transportation technologies, simulation, the smart city, and privacy.

Isabel Wagner and David Eckhoff, "Technical Privacy Metrics: A Systematic Survey," ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), vol. 51 (3), pp. 57:1-57:38, June 2018.


The goal of privacy metrics is to measure the degree of privacy enjoyed by users in a system and the amount of protection offered by privacy-enhancing technologies. In this way, privacy metrics contribute to improving user privacy in the digital world. The diversity and complexity of privacy metrics in the literature make an informed choice of metrics challenging. As a result, instead of using existing metrics, new metrics are proposed frequently, and privacy studies are often incomparable. In this survey, we alleviate these problems by structuring the landscape of privacy metrics. To this end, we explain and discuss a selection of over 80 privacy metrics and introduce categorizations based on the aspect of privacy they measure, their required inputs, and the type of data that needs protection. In addition, we present a method on how to choose privacy metrics based on nine questions that help identify the right privacy metrics for a given scenario, and highlight topics where additional work on privacy metrics is needed. Our survey spans multiple privacy domains and can be understood as a general framework for privacy measurement.

Quick access

Original Version DOI (at publishers web site)
Authors' Version PDF (PDF on this web site)
BibTeX BibTeX


Isabel Wagner
David Eckhoff

BibTeX reference

    author = {Wagner, Isabel and Eckhoff, David},
    journal = {ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR)},
    title = {{Technical Privacy Metrics: A Systematic Survey}},
    year = {2018},
    issn = {0360-0300},
    month = {June},
    number = {3},
    pages = {57:1-57:38},
    volume = {51},
    doi = {10.1145/3168389},
    publisher = {ACM},

Copyright notice

Links to final or draft versions of papers are presented here to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted or distributed for commercial purposes without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.

The following applies to all papers listed above that have IEEE copyrights: Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.

The following applies to all papers listed above that are in submission to IEEE conference/workshop proceeedings or journals: This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. Copyright may be transferred without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessible.

The following applies to all papers listed above that have ACM copyrights: ACM COPYRIGHT NOTICE. Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than ACM must be honored. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Request permissions from Publications Dept., ACM, Inc., fax +1 (212) 869-0481, or permissions@acm.org.

The following applies to all SpringerLink papers listed above that have Springer Science+Business Media copyrights: The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com.

This page was automatically generated using BibDB and bib2web.